Skip to main content



Create branch

git branch branchName

Delete branch

git branch -D branchName

List branches

git branch

Merge target branch with current

git merge targetBranchName

Useful options:

  • --abort aborts the merge process and reconstructs the pre-merge state (if the merge has not been committed yet and there is a merge conflict).
  • --ff resolves the merge as a fast-forward if possible. Merge commit is not created. Used by default.
  • --no-ff creates a merge commit in all cases, even when the merge could instead be resolved as a fast-forward.
  • -m msg sets the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in case one is created).

Move to branch

git checkout branchName

Push local branch not existent in the remote repo

git push --set-upstream origin localBranchName

Change remote's URL from HTTPS to SSH

git remote set-url origin


Apply a commit from one branch to a different one.

Find commit id.

git log

Switch to target branch and apply changes.

git checkout branch
git cherry-pick commitID
  • id1..idN merges several commits, from id1 to idN.
  • If the name of a branch is passed instead of a commit id the last commit of that branch is selected.
  • -x adds source commit id to commit message.

Create release tag

# Create a Lightweight or an Annotated tag (tagName cannot contain spaces).
# Lightweight tag.
git tag tagName
# Annotated tag.
git tag -a tagName -m 'tagMessage'
# Transfer tag to remote server.
git push -u origin tagName
  • Appears as tagName in the project's "Tags" page on GitHub and a Release can be created based on it in the "Releases" section of the repository.

Download upstream and automatically merge local with it (fast forward)

git pull

Download upstream without merging changes

git fetch

Branches are now accessible locally and can be merged into the currrent branch.


Scripts triggered by certain events. These scripts take one of the names below and have to be placed in .git/hooks dir.

pre-receive # Triggered when the remote receives the pushed changes

List commits in current branch

git log

Remove and stop tracking file

git rm fileName
git commit -m "remove file"
echo "fileName" >> .gitignore
git commit -m "stop tracking file"

Undo changes

Return to state of specific commit

git reset commitID # or commitID~1 commit before commitID


  • --hard modifies Staging, History and Working Directory.
  • --mixed modifies Staging and History.
  • --soft modifies History.
  • --merge like --hard but does not affect uncommitted changes.

Push changes.

git push --force origin master
  • If forcing a push doesn't work the remote server is refusing non fast-forward pushes either via receive.denyNonFastForwards config variable or via update / pre-receive hook.

Manually replace files (preserves history).

# Reset the local state.
git reset --hard commitID
# Copy the relevant part, e.g. the src directory.
cp -r src/ /tmp/
# Get the latest state again.
git pull
# Remove what is not needed anymore.
rm -rf src/
# Restore from the copy.
cp -r /tmp/src .
# Commit and push.
git commit -am 'Revert to commitID'
git push

Revert changes to a file if they haven’t been committed yet

git checkout -- file

Revert everything from HEAD back to a commit without losing history

git revert --no-commit 0766c053..HEAD # HEAD = latest commit in current branch
git commit


Delete all elements in the stack

git stash drop

List elements in the stack and their index

git stash list

Restore changes from a specific element in the stack

git stash apply --index elementIndex

Restore changes from the head of the stack and remove it from the stack

git stash pop

Save working directory changes to the stack

git stash
  • push -m 'message' can be used to add a description of the changes that are going to be stashed.